By Hui Lin, Jun Zhu, Bingli Xu, Wenshi Lin, Ya Hu (auth.), Jiyeong Lee, Sisi Zlatanova (eds.)
In contemporary years 3D geo-information has develop into an immense learn zone end result of the elevated complexity of initiatives in lots of geo-scientific purposes, equivalent to sustainable city making plans and improvement, civil engineering, threat and catastrophe administration and environmental tracking. additionally, a paradigm of cross-application merging and integrating of 3D information is saw. the issues and demanding situations dealing with today’s 3D software program, typically application-oriented, concentration virtually completely on 3D info transportability matters – the facility to exploit info initially built in a single modelling/visualisation process in different and vice versa. instruments for elaborated 3D research, simulation and prediction are both lacking or, whilst on hand, devoted to particular projects. for you to reply to this elevated call for, a brand new form of procedure needs to be constructed. a completely constructed 3D geo-information approach could be capable of deal with 3D geometry and topology, to combine 3D geometry and thematic details, to investigate either spatial and topological relationships, and to provide the knowledge in an appropriate shape. as well as the easy geometry varieties like aspect line and polygon, a wide number of parametric representations, freeform curves and surfaces or sweep shapes must be supported. techniques for seamless conversion among 3D raster and 3D vector representations will be on hand, they need to enable research of a illustration most fitted for a particular application.
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Extra resources for 3D Geo-Information Sciences
One example could be the precomputation of shadow maps for each surface which would all be assigned to a theme that might be called "shadows". The shadow textures could then be mapped together with the RGB texture images to the corresponding surfaces. The appearance data is given by texture images or by material definitions (adopted from X3D  and COLLADA). CityGML provides different ways how the raster data is mapped to the surfaces: GeoreferencedTextures can be used to describe the appearance of non-vertical surfaces.
Like in CityGML, thematic objects are represented with their 3D spatial properties and interrelationships. Data are typically exchanged using the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC, see ), an ISO standard describing a product model and data exchange format for the built-up environment developed by the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI). IFC provides a very detailed semantic model for 3D building representations using constructive elements like beams, walls etc. Like in GML, IFC geometries are spatial properties of semantic objects.
Another field is GIS and in particular modelling of buildings. Disaster management systems, simulation of terrorist attacks and looking for escape routes from buildings and other multi-level structures in urban areas are vital especially after 9/11. Many emergency management systems use 2D models and do visualization in 3D. 5D models to navigate inside buildings , but 3D models are essential to this issue. Results presented by Kwan and Lee  shows that extending 2D building models to 3D can significantly improve the speed of rescue operations.