By G. Creazza, M. Mele
This quantity offers with the main glossy and topical difficulties of bridge layout. the themes offered let to take on either theoretical-analytical in addition to technical-constructive features of the layout challenge, declaring how in terms of bridges, in particular for lengthy span bridges, the 2 facets are totally inseparable. In smooth bridges, purposes of technical and fiscal feasibility oblige an severe parceling of the development approach, with the ensuing have to revise, with admire to the prior, either layout ideas in addition to the theoretical gear of study that governs it. All this may essentially be derived from studying the current quantity, during which the several contributions pressure theoretical and technical questions of specific curiosity and topicality, with no claiming to procedure them systematically, yet delivering transparent procedural principles and pattern symptoms. as regards to the theoretical strategy, a few of specific value are reviewed, reminiscent of the potential for utilizing restrict research, the simplification of the layout technique for bridges, toughness, and computing device aided layout. For what issues the bridge typologies and the corresponding positive difficulties, the emphasis is generally at the ones nonetheless in an evolutionary part, that's lengthy span suspended/stayed bridges and cantilever equipped bridges with prefabricated segments.
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Additional resources for Advanced Problems in Bridge Construction
This arrangaJalt is preferable, and hcJs been especially chosen for IIBilY rupairs using auditional prestressing. However, the steel tube, even when painted, is exposed to cmrosion. 3. ~,laicLwithin a high density polyethylen duct (HIFE), filled with a carent grout. This solution is preferable, as the duct within the box-gtrdcr, is not exposed to the lN radiations, which could induce ageing and craddng of the polyethylen. 4. thin an HIFE duct, filled with a soft naterial, either grease or was. 1his solution, slightly mre costly, is adrisable, since it allows the possible :retensioning or repJacaJEilt of a tendon if the need arises.
For a simply supported structure with a span r, a bending stiffness Elx for one of the two main girders and a torsional stiffness GK of the deck, the straight line giving the transverse load distribution derives from the following two ordinates in the axis of the girders, spaced with a distance 2c: with m2 = (GK/2EixHr /2c)2 This relation applies exactly for a sinusoidal longitudinal loading, but is also appropriate for a unifom loading (see for comparison the exact formula in ). 0 and 0 . Fig.
Small cracks occurred only at mid-span and close to the end support. Such bridges are rather flexible structures and the displacements are relatively important. For the main model the ratio between maximum deflection and span length is about 1/600 under service load distributed over the entire structure (1/300 for loads distributed over the central span only). As can be seen from figure 12 the non-linearity of geometry and material have clearly to be considered in calculating the displacements.