All Possible Worlds: A History of Geographical Ideas by Geoffrey J. Martin

By Geoffrey J. Martin

Up to date and revised to incorporate theoretical and different advancements, bibliographical additions, new photos and illustrations, and extended identify and topic indexes, the fourth version of All attainable Worlds: A heritage of Geographical Ideas is the main whole and complete ebook of its variety. The textual content additionally contains a structure and clarity that make the fabric effortless to navigate and understand.

The booklet investigates the ways that the topic of geography has been well-known, perceived, and evaluated, from its early acknowledgment in historical Greece to its disciplined shape in modern day global of shared rules and mass communique. powerful continuities knit the Classical interval to the Age of Exploration, then hold scholars on via Varenius to Humboldt and Ritter--revealing the emergence of "the new geography" of the fashionable Period.

The background of yankee geography--developed in seven of the twenty chapters--is strongly emphasised pursuant to the formal origins of geography in past due nineteenth-century Germany, Darwin's idea of evolution, and the nice Surveys of the yankee West. This remedy is superior by way of chapters touching on parallel histories of geography in Germany, France, nice Britain, Russia (including the USSR and CIS), Canada, Sweden, and Japan-countries that at the beginning contributed to and later borrowed from the physique folks geographical thought.

All attainable Worlds: A heritage of Geographical Ideas, Fourth version, is perfect for upper-level undergraduate or graduate classes within the background and philosophy of classical, medieval, and glossy geographical thought.

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When Aristotle was 49, he returned to Athens and founded his own school, which he named the Lyceum (Sarton, 1952/1964:492). By this time he was convinced that the best way to build theory was to observe facts and the best way to test a theory was to con­ front it with observations. Whereas Plato built theory by intuition and reasoned from the general to the particular, Aristotle built theory by reasoning from the particular to the general. These two ways of thinking about things are known, respectively, as deduction and induction.

Rut Strabo’s monumental work on geography was found almost intact, with only a very few minor parts missing; fortunately, the first part of Strabo’s writing is a review of what other geographers since Homer had accomplished. ” Here is the way Strabo outlined his task: Accordingly, just as the man who measures the earth gets his principles from the astronomer and the astronomer his from the physicist, so, too, the geographer must in the same way take his point of departure from the man who has measured the earth as a whole, having confidence in him and in those in whom he, in his turn, had confidence, and then explain, in the first instance, our inhabited world—its size, shape, and character, and its relations to the earth as a whole; for this is the peculiar task of the geographer.

Then, secondly, he must discuss in a fitting man­ ner the several parts of the inhabited world, both land and sea, noting in passing wherein the subject has been treated inadequately by those of our predecessors whom we have believed to be the best authorities on these matters [Strabo, trans. Jones, 1917:429-431]. c . d . 20. His family was sufficiently well-to-do that Strabo received a good education and was able to travel widely in the Greek world. He lived for several years in Rome and also worked in the library at Alexandria.

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