An Introduction to Marine Geology by M. J. Keen and J. A. Jacobs (Auth.)

By M. J. Keen and J. A. Jacobs (Auth.)

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THE CONTINENTAL MARGIN The continental shelf, slope and rise divide the continents proper from the ocean basins. T h e precise details of their features vary, but in general the shelf has a low average gradient close to 1:1000, the slope is by contrast steep, with gradients which vary from near vertical to about 1:40 and the gradient of the continental rise at the foot of the slope Fig. 1. Physiographic divisions o f the floor of the North Atlantic Ocean (after (126) B. C. Heezen and H. W. M e n a r d ) .

Bradshaw< ). pressure and pH are not easy to make because of the difficulty of isolat( 2 9 , 2 2 )4 In the case of the ing one factor, say temperature, for study. diatom Asterionella japonica the influence of temperature upon its distribution deduced from experimental studies does not agree with the observed geographical distribution. The influences of environmental factors are not confined to whether or not a factor is lethal or non-lethal, but more important, to their effect upon rate of growth and reproduction.

T h e break in slope at the edge of the shelf varies in (b) 38 An Introduction to Marine Geology (c) Fig. 3. T h e continental shelf off Nova Scotia (see Fig. 6 for location). Presentation to show the complexity of the topography and the distribution of land and sea as it would appear if sea level were reduced successively. T h e land is white, the sea black (but note that the area beyond the outer black margin is wholly sea), (a) Sea level at the present 30 fm line, (b) 50 fm, (c) 70 fm. T h e Gully of Fig.

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