By David Henry Krinsley
Backscattered scanning electron microscopy (BSE) unearths the minerals, textures, and materials of sediments and rocks in a lot larger aspect than is feasible with traditional optical microscopy. Backscattered Scanning Electron Microscopy presents a concise precis of the BSE strategy. This accomplished consultant makes use of plentiful photographs to demonstrate the kind of details BSE yields and the appliance of the strategy to the learn of sediments and sedimentary rocks. The authors assessment using this petrographic process on all of the significant sedimentary rock kinds, together with sediment grains, sandstones, shales, carbonate rocks, rock varnish, and glauconite. in addition they describe photo research options that let quantification of backscattered scanning electron microscope photos. seriously illustrated and lucidly written, this ebook will supply researchers and graduate scholars with the most up-tp-date study in this very important geological device.
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Extra resources for Backscattered scanning electron microscopy and image analysis of sediments and sedimentary rocks
The overall effect of these reactions was estimated to have increased the porosity of some parts of the shale fill by up to 10%, with possibly significant implications for its geotechnical behavior (Fig. 8). , 1994; Pye and Mottershead, 1995). 8. K. P = porosity formed by calcite dissolution; G = authigenic gypsum; FeS = pyrite. Scale bar = 20 /xm. 31 SEDIMENT GRAINS, WEATHERING, AND EARLY DIAGENETIC PHENOMENA both on the surface and within the stone. The limestone that had an oosparitic texture showed better resistance to decay than did the stone having an oomicritic texture, despite being exposed to higher pollution levels at its collection site in central London.
Scale bar = 100/^m. 25. K. Scale bar = 100 jum. 26. K. Scale bar = 20 /xm. 27. K. Remaining areas of aragonite (A) appear relatively dark. Scale bar = 100 /xm. f-'t 45 SEDIMENT GRAINS, WEATHERING, AND EARLY DIAGENETIC PHENOMENA complex textural and mineralogical compositional pattern in the rock. 28 shows a relatively young groundwater calcrete collected from a dry stream bed developed on granitoid gneiss in semiarid Kenya (Pye and Coleman, in press). The rock has a high detrital matrix to cement ratio, the detrital component consisting mainly of sand- and silt-size quartz and feldspar fragments, with subsidiary mica.
Scale bar = 100 /x,m. 33 SEDIMENT GRAINS, WEATHERING, AND EARLY DIAGENETIC PHENOMENA of large amounts of ettringite is detrimental to the strength of the concrete because this calcium-alumino-sulfate mineral contains 31 water molecules in its structure and is prone to large volume changes. These water molecules cause expansion of the concrete and progressively reduce its strength. In extreme cases, concrete that has been severely affected by sulfate attack becomes crumbly and disintegrates altogether.