Biogranulation technologies for wastewater treatment by Joo Hwa Tay

By Joo Hwa Tay

Microbial granules have sensible value in anaerobic and cardio organic wastewater therapy. merits of granules are retention of biomass in reactor, range of microorganisms, complicated constitution, and resistance to destructive stipulations. Microbial granules can be utilized to regard municipal and commercial wastewater for elimination of natural subject, xenobiotics, nutrition, and heavy metals. The publication covers just about all facets of formation and use of microbial granules in wastewater therapy. the information on cardio microbial granulation are similar normally to laboratory platforms because of few pilot structures on the earth utilizing cardio microbial granules. notwithstanding, by means of the analogy with anaerobic granulation, that is now used world wide, it really is attainable to foretell extensive purposes of cardio granulation. This e-book can help researchers and engineers strengthen those new biotechnologies of wastewater therapy in keeping with cardio granulation. * Covers all features of formation, association, and use of microbial granules in wastewater remedy * Integrates engineering, microbiology, and biotechnology of microbial granules * includes of deep basic info in addition to functional details for functions of microbial granules in wastewater therapy

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Such a selection pressure would influence the formation and microstructure of granules. Chemical Conditions Ionic composition and presence of polymer in the anaerobic system are believed to have significant roles in the forming granules through various mechanisms and models. The effects of various cations and polymers are discussed in the following sections. Effect of Cations Divalent and trivalent cations have positive effects on flocculation of dispersed sludge. Commonly used divalent cations are calcium and magnesium while iron can be used as both a divalent or trivalent cation depending on its oxidation state.

Effl. Water. Treat. , 12, 520-525. , & Verstraete, W. (1997). Effects of directly soluble and fibrous rapidly acidifying chemical oxygen demand and reactor liquid surface tension on granulation and sludge-bed stability in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. Appl. Microbiol. , 48, 304-310. B. (1991). Effect of ethylene glycol-bis(~-aminoethylether)-N, N-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) on stability and activity of methanogenic granular sludge. Appl. Microbiol. , 36, 109-114. , & Samson, R. (1988). Metal effect on microbial aggregation during upflow anaerobic sludge bed-filter (UBF) reactor start-up.

1983) Wu et al. (1985) Wu et al. (1985) Wu et al. (1987) Sierra-Alvarez et al. (1988) Morvai et al. (1992) Morvai et al. (1992) Campos and Anderson (1992) Ghangrekar et al. (1996) Ghangrekar et al. (1996) Factors affecting anaerobic granulation 43 Characteristics of Seed Sludge Theoretically any medium containing the proper bacterial flora can be used as seed sludge for granule cultivation. Common seed materials include manure, fresh water sediments, septic tank sludge, digested sewage sludge, and surplus sludge from anaerobic treatment plants.

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