By Professor Dr. E. Fitzer, Professor Dr. Lalit M. Manocha (auth.)
Carbon has been used because the so much profitable reinforcement for fabrics like glass, ceramics, metals and polymers. Carbon/carbon composites are used whilst hot temperature stipulations be successful. The authors provide a entire review of the current prestige during this box in addition to projections for brand new "high tech" materials.
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Extra info for Carbon Reinforcements and Carbon/Carbon Composites
Perhaps the most unusual flow characteristic of mesophase pitches is that their viscosities are extremely temperature dependent. 25 shows the apparent viscosity of different fractions of a coal tar pitch, Ashland 240 - 30 1 Carbon Fibers TS CTP A-240 1:1 1:4 TI TI 1:4 1:1 , CTP TS 60 \ 45 15 o ~ 50 __ ~ 100 __ ~~~ 150 __ 200 ~~==== 250 ______=====-__ 350 Temperature °C 300 400 450 ~~L- 500 __ 550 Fig. 25. Apparent viscosity of different fractions of coal tar pitch (CTP) and petroleum pitch (A 240) as a function of heat treatment temperature  toluene soluble and insoluble fractions, and mixtures of toluene soluble and insoluble fractions - as a function of temperature.
1000 SAF 1200 Stabilization Treatment • 230°C-----260°C / 40 min a 230°C ----- 270°C / 40 min • 230°C---290°C I 40 min 1600 HTI-------- 2000 2400 °C ~ ~ 100 2800 SAF Stabilization Treatment • 230°C-----260°C /40min a 230°C -----270°C / 40 min • 230 °C-----290 °C / 40min 1200 HTI-------- °C Fig. 19. Influence of final heat treatment temperature on the mechanical properties of fibers stabilized at various conditions  1800°C (Fig. 18) . This final removal of nitrogen permits the structural rearrangement of lattice defects, leading to another increase in fiber strength at temperatures above 1800 °C - the second maximum seen in Fig.
Standard HT-Fibers T-300 (Toray) AS-4 (Hercules) 2800 3700 230 250 2. 1M-Fibers "New Generation" T-800 (Toray) T-I000 (Toray) Celion G 40-700 (BASF) 4900 7050 5000 290 290 300 3. HM-Fibers M-40 (Toray) M-50 (Toray) Celion G 50-300 (BASF) Celion GY-80 (BASF) 2740 2450 2500 1860 390 490 360 570 be drawn prior to stabilization and carbonization, and (ii) the PAN precursor fiber can be elongated during stabilization. Both approaches reduce surface flaws and other intrinsic flaws in the fiber. Also, both approaches produce a fiber diameter which is so small that skin-core effects caused by differential stabilization are eliminated.