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Extra info for Cellulose: Molecular and Structural Biology: Selected articles on the synthesis, structure, and applications of cellulose
1999; Fagard et al. 2000; Holland et al. 2000; Taylor et al. 2000; Burn et al. 2002; Taylor et al. 2003) suggests a relationship between CesA diversification and the evolution of tracheary elements. As reviewed previously, distinct triads of CesAs are thought to compose the rosettes responsible for secondary cell wall deposition in tracheary elements (AtCesA4,7,8) and in expanding tissues (AtCesA1,3,6) (Doblin et al. 2002). Primary and secondary cell walls differ in the orientation and spatial localization of cellulose microfibrils (Hepler 1981), apparent microfibril dimensions (Ha et al.
327–347. Herth W. 1983. Arrays of plasma-membrane “rosettes” involved in cellulose microfibril formation of Spirogyra. Planta 159:347–356. Herth W. 1985. Plasma-membrane rosettes involved in localized wall thickening during xylem vessel formation of Lepidium sativum L. Planta 164:12–21. , and Reski R. 2004. An improved and highly standardised transformation procedure allows efficient production of single and multiple targeted gene-knockouts in a moss, Physcomitrella patens. Curr Genet 44:339–347.
1984). This raises the possibility that CslDs, like CesAs, assemble into rosettes. Since tip-growing cells may be exceptions to the microtubule-microfibril paradigm for microfibril orientation (Emons et al. 1992), CslDs may differ from CesAs in their interactions with the cytoskeleton. It will be interesting to see if sequence analysis reveals a potential basis for such interactions. 5 ANALYSIS OF CesA FUNCTION BY TARGETED TRANFORMATION IN P. patens The combined attributes of high rates of homologous recombination, haploid state of the protonema and leafy gametophyte, suitability for microscopic examination, a body complexity intermediate between that of algae and vascular plants, and the high similarity of many genes to those in higher plants make P.