By Nigel D. Browning, Stephen J. Pennycook
It is a transparent and up to date account of the appliance of electron-based microscopies to the learn of high-Tc superconductors. Written via prime specialists, this compilation presents a accomplished overview of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy, including information of every process and its functions. Introductory chapters conceal the fundamentals of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, together with a bankruptcy dedicated to specimen guidance thoughts and microanalysis through scanning transmission electron microscopy. resulting chapters learn id of latest superconducting compounds, imaging of superconducting houses by means of low-temperature scanning electron microscopy, imaging of vortices through electron holography and digital constitution selection by way of electron strength loss spectroscopy. using scanning tunneling microscopy for exploring floor morphology, development strategies and the mapping of superconducting provider distributions can also be mentioned. ultimate chapters examine functions of electron microscopy to the research of grain obstacles, skinny motion pictures and gadget constructions. particular references are incorporated. This publication will curiosity graduate scholars and researchers in condensed topic physics and fabric technology.
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Extra info for Characterization of high Tc materials and devices by electron microscopy
11(a), (b), (c), (d) and (e) are electron micrographs taken at a Ê (underfocus), 450 A Ê , 300 A Ê , 50 A Ê and À300 A Ê (overdefocus of about 800 A focus), respectively. 11(a) and (d) are bright-spot images, while Figs. 11(b), (c) and (e) are dark-spot images. The image contrast is apparently reversed between (a) and (b), (c) and (d), and (d) and (e). Images calculated for the areas B1, D1, D2, B2 and D3 in Fig. 10 are inserted in Fig. 11 with the same magni®cation. It is noted that they almost ®t to each other.
Lorentz micrograph of a BSCCO (2212) ®lm; (a) T 4X5 K, (b) T 20 K, (c) T 56 K, and (d) T 68 K. Phase distributions in electron beams can be measured to within 2ða100, which has opened the way to measuring microscopic objects and ®elds with ultra-high precision. These developments allow the direct observation of individual vortices in a superconductor. Electron phase microscopy can be used to clarify the fundamental and practical applications of superconductivity, especially in the ®eld of high Tc superconductors.
2 Magnetic ®eld observation For a pure magnetic object, the phase difference between two electron beams passing through the object is given by X ÄSa" À(ea") A ds À(ea") BXdS, (2X2) where the ®rst integral is carried out along a closed path along two electron trajectories, and the second integral is carried out over the surface determined by the two paths. 15]. (1) (2) Contour fringes in the interference micrograph indicate magnetic lines of force, because the phase difference ÄSa" vanishes between two beams passing through arbitrary points along a magnetic line.