By Shahid Amjad Chaudhry, Gary James Reid, Waleed Haider Malik
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Extra resources for Civil Service Reform in Latin America and the Caribbean: Proceedings of a Conference (World Bank Technical Paper) (No 259)
In this sense the occupation reforms at least deserve mention as an early element of the set of norms and goals that have pervaded Japanese reform efforts over the past four decades. The other two efforts, begun in 1961 and in the early 19 80s, were initiated and implemented by the Japanese government but were compatible with many of the occupation reforms. S. S. occupation (see Pempel 1987). Following the initial structural changes, the Americans unleashed a substantial and somewhat separate effort at systematic downsizing that was ultimately implemented by the Japanese government.
Unfortunately, the enclave approach has sometimes been used in environments with patrimonial distortions. 19 The purpose was to build fences to insulate organizations from the distorted institutional environment in order to implement specific donor-financed projects; to carry out specific core government functions (such as customs); or to ensure the delivery of specific public services. The resulting enclave entities take the form of donor-financed project management units (PMUs); public enterprises; management contracts with expatriate exports (for example, DGTEX in C6te d'lvoire, French management of Air Afrique); and even direct tutelage by bilateral donors of certain key government economic or financial functions, in exchange for their assistance (for example, customs).
There seems to be a dual system in which turnover is much higher at the the upper and middle levels than at the lower levels. The eighth paradox relates to the decentralization that the Latin American and Caribbean region has been undertaking, along with the rest of the developing world and even the post-communist states. Decentralization in Latin America is happening in different stages and is driven by two different forces-managerial and political. Managerial decentralization occurs when, after analyzing a public function, it is decided that the way to improve capacity and performance is to decentralize.