By Suryadi Ismadji, Felycia Edi Soetaredjo, Aning Ayucitra
A entire overview of environmental remediation is gifted with an emphasis at the position of clay minerals in water purification. within the first bankruptcy, vital facets of environmental difficulties and attainable suggestions are mentioned. within the moment bankruptcy, the appliance of ordinary clay minerals as environmental cleansing brokers are defined. The dialogue is targeted at the function of other varieties of clay fabrics in detrimental substance removing from air, aqueous options, wastewater, aquaculture, floor water, and so on. within the subsequent bankruptcy, the amendment of clay fabrics is explored together with the instruction of clay composite fabrics for environmental remediation. quite a few facets of clay fabric adjustments and the results of clay floor chemistry at the removing of damaging fabric can be mentioned. subsequent, the equilibrium and kinetics of unsafe substance adsorption is gifted. This bankruptcy summarizes contemporary stories at the removing of harmful components from aqueous strategies and the surroundings utilizing numerous varieties of clay minerals. The short additionally contains a number of versions utilized in adsorption reports and touches at the characterization of clay minerals.
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Extra resources for Clay Materials for Environmental Remediation
Removal of lead and cadmium from aqueous solution by polyvinyl alcohol-modified kaolinite clay: a novel nanoclay adsorbent. Adsorpt. Sci. Technol. : Predicting the dynamics and performance of a polymer–clay based composite in a fixed bed system for the removal of lead (II) ion. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. : Kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analysis of congo red adsorption by clay materials. Chem. Eng. J. : Beneficiation of diasporic-bauxite ore by selective flocculation with a polyacrylate flocculant.
2 Adsorption of Dyes Dyes have been used by human since the beginning of human civilization, and all colorant used were from natural origin. Synthetic dye manufacturing started in 1856, and in the early of 20th century, synthetic dyestuffs had almost completely supplanted natural dyes. Based on their structure, synthetic dyes can be classified into 20–30 groups such as azo (monoazo, diazo, triazo, polyazo), anthraquinone, phthalocyanine, triarylmethane, diarylmethane, indigoid, azine, oxazine, thiazine, xanthene, nitro, nitroso, methine, thiazole, indamine, indophenol, lactone, aminoketone, etc.
4 Application Clay Minerals as Cleaning Agents in Aquaculture and Other Systems In the water the ammonia (NH3) exists in its equilibrium form with the ammonium ion (NH4 +) according to the following equilibrium chemical reaction: NH3 + H2 O ↔ NH4 + + OH− Unionized ammonia (NH3) is harmful to aquatic organisms. The acidity and basicity (pH) of the water strongly influence the equilibrium condition between unionized ammonia and the ionized one. Unionized ammonia is toxic and its presence in water predominates when the pH is high, while in the form of ammonium ion (NH4 +) is relatively nontoxic and predominates when pH is low.