By Neil Petchers
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Extra resources for Combined heating, cooling & power handbook : technologies & applications an integrated approach to energy resource optimization
The Carnot cycle represents a theoretical efficiency that serves as a standard for cycle efficiencies. eps solely of the upper and lower temperatures of the cycle and not a function of the working substances. The Carnot cycle for both vapor and gas cycles typifies ideal performance for power producing cycles. In the Carnot cycle, heat is taken from an infinite reservoir, at temperature TH, isothermally (without temperature change) and reversibly. The energy received produces work by expanding a working fluid reversibly and adiabatically in an ideal frictionless engine.
Cogeneration may be applied to both simple and combined cycles. Heat recovery turns a relatively inefficient simplecycle power generation process into a more efficient cogeneration or combined-cycle process. Heat recovery is the effective capture and use of heat rejected from the power cycles. Rejected heat is the energy associated with streams of air, exhaust gasses, and liquids that exit the system and enter the environment as waste products. As shown in Figure 1-2, heat recovery is applied to the simple-cycle gas turbine for the purpose of sequentially providing thermal energy to a process, thereby transforming that system into a cogeneration cycle.
Combined Cycle Plants with Heat Recovery Steam Generators Net Plant Efficiency % 55 50 Combined Cycle Plants with Feedwater Heat Exchanges 45 Combined Cycle Plants with Fully Fired Steam Generators (Hot Windbox) Steam Turbine Power Plant 1350 750 450 300 150 75MW Steam Turbine Output 1500 900 600 450 300 225 MW Repowered Plant Output Fig. 1-5 Efficiency Range of Repowered Plant with 150 MW Gas Turbine as a Function of Repowered Plant Output. Source: Siemens Power Corp. eps Fig. 1-6 Cogeneration Combined Cycle with Heat Recovered from Gas Turbine and Steam Turbine Cycles.