Counting the full cost: parental and community financing of by Mark Bray

By Mark Bray

COUNTING the whole fee

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In Cambodia, as elsewhere, the scale of charges varies by subject and by grade. In 1995 one mother in Phnom Penh indicated that for her Page 16 Box 2. Private Tutoring in Cambodia The clang of a metal pipe against an old car wheel resounded across the school yard, signaling the end of morning classes, but none of the seventy students in Kung Vichet's fourth-grade class budged from their seats. Instead they put away the notes they had been taking on how magnets work and brought out their mathematics notebooks.

These may be exemplified by an old-style, private-tutor school (known as sishu) that has reemerged in China. Along with household tutors these small onetutor, one-room classes were traditional China's principal means of providing elementary education. 19) have been revived in some communities to serve rural children who cannot afford the levies demanded by public schools. The current version is said to be able to provide basic literacy and numeracy at half the cost of regular schooling. Pepper cites a study from Hunan province that indicated an annual cost of 350 yuan or more per year in regular school charges, compared with 120180 yuan for sishu instruction, which can be negotiated in kind for families with cash flow problems.

8 Moreover, some schools require three or four different uniforms, including ones for òrdinary use and for sports in different seasons, plus perhaps scouts or other special-activity clothes. In these cases it is legitimate to include at least some uniform costs as a school expense. The same applies to food.

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