By Donald M. MacRaild
"Culture, clash and Migration... merits to be learn as a massive contribution to the starting to be literature at the Irish in Britain."Irish reports Review
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Extra info for Culture, Conflict and Migration: The Irish in Victorian Cumbria
14 We might add that these words could easily apply to Lancashire or industrial Scotland; or that notable clusters of these new settlers were of Irish stock. Thus, when allied to innate nativist viewpoints, the size of new Irish settlements in the 1820s and 1830s became a key factor in promoting tensions—tensions which were increased enormously by the savage eﬀects of the Great Famine (1845–52). 15 By the mid-1830s, annual emigration to America was increasing but remained comparatively modest. What came after, however, was to dwarf previous migrations.
H. Treble, ‘The attitude of the Roman Catholic church towards trade unionism in the north of England’, Northern History, Vol. 5 (1970), and G. P. Connolly, ‘The Catholic Church and the ﬁrst Manchester and Salford trade unions in the age of the Industrial Revolution’, Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, Vol. 135 (1985), pp. 125–60. 29 R. Swift, ‘ ‘‘Another Staﬀord street row’’: law, order and the Irish presence in mid-Victorian Wolverhampton’, Immigrants and Minorities, Vol.
Yet this was not just about the persecution of poorly-paid unskilled workers who worked for less than the going rate. One example from Wales, also from 1834, provides an added dimension to this subject of anti-Irish violence in the workplace. This time the victim of ‘Rough Music’, John Corbet, was a skilled mason who held regular employment paying 18s per week. 45 By the 1850s, such violence was near-endemic. Furthermore, the pressures of migration after the Famine increased the perceived economic pressure of the Irish, while the ﬁerce anti-Catholic backlash against the Papal Aggression of 1850 (when the Pope restored the hierarchy of the Catholic Church in England and Wales)—itself an acknowledgement of the size of England’s Irish community— provided clear evidence of the unique intensity with which the British upheld their cherished Protestant ascendancy.