District cooling: theory and practice by Alaa A. Olama

By Alaa A. Olama

DISTRICT COOLING: conception and perform presents a different research of an power cogeneration approach, arrange to deliver chilled water to structures (offices, condo homes, and factories) desiring cooling for air-con and refrigeration. In iciness, the resource for the cooling can frequently be sea water, so it's a more affordable source than utilizing electrical energy to run compressors for cooling. The similar expertise of District Heating has been a longtime engineering perform for a few years, yet District Cooling is a comparatively new know-how now being carried out in quite a few elements of the realm, together with america, Arab Emirates and Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. latest books within the quarter are scarce, and don't deal with a number of the an important matters dealing with international locations with excessive total air temperatures, lots of that are constructing District Cooling plans utilizing sea water. DISTRICT COOLING: thought & perform integrates the idea at the back of district cooling making plans with the sensible engineering methods, so it will possibly serve the coverage makers, engineers, and planners whose efforts must be coordinated and heavily controlled to make such platforms powerful and reasonable. In occasions of emerging around the globe temperatures, District Cooling is how to offer wanted cooling with strength conservation and sustainability. This booklet stands out as the most recent and complete research at the topic, with Case reviews describing actual tasks in detail.

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A schedule for phasing out HCFCs was agreed between the parties in 2007 (Decision XIX/6) to accelerate the phase-out schedule for HCFCs. This ensures faster protection to the ozone layer and also faster mitigation of CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent), assuming that alternatives can be found with a low or no climate impact. The Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) of the UNEP estimated in 2008 that 4–5 billion tons of CO2 is in ODS banks in developing countries and 12–13 billion tons of CO2 is in ODS banks in developed countries.

Several proposed amendments were presented to the parties to reduce, restrict, and phase down high GWP HFC refrigerants. A decision has now been taken to phase down HFCs according to an agreement to be worked out by the stakeholders during 2016. 4 Classification of Refrigerants with 100-Year GWP Levels 100 Year GWP Classification <30 <100 <300 300–1,000 >1,000 >3,000 >10,000 Ultralow or negligible Very low Low Medium High Very high Ultrahigh Source: RTOC Report (UNEP, 2014). 5 Safety Classifications of Refrigerants Toxicity Flammability 1 2L 2 3 A B A1 A2L A2 A3 B1 B2L B2 B3 Source: RTOC Report (UNEP, 2014).

The parties ask TEAP every year to evaluate technical issues related to MP, so that TEAP annual reports become a basis for decisions. TEAP manages its subsidiary bodies, Technical Options Committees (TOCs), of which the Refrigeration, Air-Conditioning and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee (RTOC) is of special importance. The RTOC issues a report every 4 years, written by top experts in the field, that sheds light on new state-of-the-art technologies in refrigerants, domestic appliances, commercial refrigeration, industrial systems, transport refrigeration, air-to-air air-conditioning and heat pumps, water heating heat pumps, chillers, vehicle air-conditioning, and sustainable refrigeration.

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