Effects of Ionizing Radiation: United Nations Scientific by United Nations

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Additional info for Effects of Ionizing Radiation: United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation: UNSCEAR 2006 Report to the General Assembly With Scientific Annexes C, D, and (Official Records), Vol. II

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End points were induction of micronucleated and apoptotic cells. 8-fold for apoptosis. The surprisingly long range of bystander signals in a human 34 UNSCEAR 2006 REPORT: VOLUME II tissue model system suggests that bystander responses may be important in extrapolating potential radiation effects from epidemiologically relevant doses down to very low doses (<200 mGy), where non-hit bystander cells would likely predominate [M36]. 75. Compared with the number of in vitro studies on bystander effects, there are relatively few studies on bystander effects in vivo, and these are summarized in table 4.

A flask of cells is irradiated, and as a function of time post-irradiation, medium is removed from the irradiated cells, filtered and transferred to non-irradiated cells. Clonogenic survival is then investigated in these non­irradiated cells. Bystander effects are indicated by a reduction in plating efficiency in the non-irradiated cells that were cultured in medium from the irradiated cells. Lower portion: plating efficiency expressed as percentage of survival after transfer of medium from cells exposed to increasing doses of ionizing radiation (adapted from reference [S13]).

Radiation alone led to growth delay exclusively of the irradiated 67NR tumour. However, growth of the non-irradiated tumour was also impaired by the combination of radiation and ligand. Importantly, the abscopal effect was shown to be tumour-specific, because growth of a non-irradiated A20 lymphoma in the same mice containing a treated 67NR tumour was not affected. More­ over, no growth delay of non-irradiated 67NR tumours was observed when T-cell-deficient (nude) mice were treated with the combination of radiation and ligand.

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