By W. A. M. Hijnen
The general target of this e-book is to offer default values for the micro-organisms removing or inactivation credits of universally used tactics in water remedy (MEC or MIC). those MEC or MIC values were calculated from foreign literature information which printed a excessive edition in capacities or logremoval. The parameters and approach regulate parameters affecting the awarded capacities are defined. This re-creation describes the cutting-edge growth in study on traditional remedy, coagulation and flocculation, speedy granular filtration, sluggish sand filtration and UV disinfection. This identify belongs to KWR Watercycle study Institute sequence
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Extra info for Elimination of Micro-Organisms by Drinking Water Treatment Processes
1995) of Cryptosporidium spiked to the influent of a pilot plant. Plummer et al. (1995), Edzwald and Keley (1998) and Bell (2001) studied the process on bench-scale level (jar-tests) to determine the removal of spiked Cryptosporidium oocysts. 9) was in same order of magnitude as for the virus and bacteria studies. , 2002). 1) with a similar range of DEC-values as observed for the other organisms. 5). Most of the full-scale studies (FS ¼ 5; black bars) showed lower DEC-values. Haas et al. 8) log for Cryptosporidium removal by coagulation followed by sedimentation and DAF, respectively.
These results must be treated with care, however, since the recovery of the used counting method is low and variable and is influenced by the turbidity of the water. 3 Flocculation Generally, data indicated that coagulation followed by sedimentation or lamellae separators is less effective in removing micro-organisms than flocculation with dissolved air (DAF), a conclusion also drawn by Haas et al. 4). 4 log better than LAM under similar influent conditions (turbidity). 5). The difference in coagulant could be the cause of this difference in DEC, but it is more likely that the high turbidity of the source water, especially in winter, was responsible for a higher efficiency of the process with aluminium.
10) was not included in the MECcalculation. 5) by RGF was observed by Patania et al. 10). Kelley et al. (1995) studied the removal of environmental Giardia cysts by full-scale sand filters. The study, however, did not mention the operational data of the filters. 2 log. 5). Payment et al. (1993) and States et al. 5). 5 log was presented by Al-ani et al. 11). 9 log. 8 DW-Sa E. histo. 13). A variation between the different types of filters and organisms and also between studies investigating the same type of organism and filtration process (error bar shows the range of DEC-values).