Ending and Extending Life (Contemporary Issues in Science) by Miriam Boleyn-Fitzgerald

By Miriam Boleyn-Fitzgerald

Finishing and increasing existence takes an in depth examine numerous daring scientific options that experience kept and better the lives of hundreds of thousands of sufferers. Mechanical air flow, organ transplantation and different life-saving surgical strategies, new diagnostic applied sciences (such as CT and MRI scans), complicated chemotherapy and antiviral medicinal drugs, and tube feeding are just many of the many clinical improvements that experience had intriguing and complicated implications for sufferers, family, and overall healthiness care practitioners.

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The Tuskegee analogy is inappropriate because the men in that study were prevented from receiving treatment that was widely available to others in the United States, and they were deliberately misled. ” Only placebos, proponents argued, would realistically simulate the standard of care in host countries. , no antiretroviral treatment at all. Implicit in criticisms of the trials was a belief that the principle of beneficence, which seeks to maximize benefits and minimize harm, had been violated by the use of a placebo.

Was to perform incomplete lead repairs in order to test the efficacy of less expensive abatement procedures. Ethicist Alex John London of Carnegie Mellon University proposed that a more instructive comparison than Tuskegee might be the HIV vertical transmission trials conducted in developing nations (see chapter 1). “In both cases the proposed research was designed to be responsive to a health problem that disproportionately affects one population, but not some others. ” London acknowledged that the analogy is imperfect, since the countries that hosted the HIV vertical transmission trials were relatively poor, whereas the United States is a wealthy, technologically advanced country, theoretically capable of bringing the safe-housing standards enjoyed by wealthier members of society to all its citizens.

Their anatomy, biochemistry, and metabolic systems are different from adults’. Drugs often affect children differently than they do adults, and special surgical techniques must be devised that work with children’s physiology. Certain problems seen in children are never seen in adults (congenital heart defects, for example, that must be corrected in order for children to survive). Says medical ethicist Ronald Munson, “For many medical purposes, children must be thought of almost as if they were wholly different organisms.

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