Heating,Ventilation and Air Conditioning by Richard Nicholls

By Richard Nicholls

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21). The calorifier is essentially a coil of copper tube through which the heating system water flows. Heat transfer from the calorifier warms up the cold water held in the cylinder. The heated water rises to the top of the tank where it is drawn off to the taps. The cold feed, which enters at the base of the cylinder, is from a mains fed tank which is often built in to the When water is heated it expands. The increase in pressure caused by this would damage an unvented system since the pressure cannot be released.

As a consequence heat distribution systems which use air must be much larger than hydronic distribution systems to carry the greater volumes required. The relatively high thermal capacity of dense materials such as stone is used for thermal storage. 1). SENSIBLE AND LATENT HEAT Sensible heat and latent heat are both forms of thermal energy. The difference in name arises as a result of what happens to a material when the thermal energy is being absorbed. The absorption of Latent heat causes a change of state.

The human body is very sensitive to radiant energy and so this component has a strong affect on comfort. In addition to the three basic forms of heat transfer there are two others related to the human body. The first is heat gain by the body due to metabolism. The body burns food to grow, repair itself and cause movement. A by-product is heat. The amount of heat gained by the body is substantial and increases with the level of activity. This is illustrated in the following table. 5oC Radiation Radiation Convection Convection Conduction Conduction Figure IP5 Balance of body heat gains and losses FACTORS AFFECTING THERMAL COMFORT Anything which changes the balance of heat inputs and outputs will affect thermal comfort.

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