By Fritz Deumlich
Ebook through Deumlich, Fritz
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Extra info for Surveying instruments
Modern instruments have telelenses, consisting of a two- (figures 102a and b) or three lens (figure 102c) front element, and a shiftable one or two lens rear element serving as focussing lens. This permits a rather short tele- 1. Optical Equipment and Level Bubbles scope length. The relative opening of the objective lens is the ratio of free diameter dEP of the objective lens and the focal length /: (38) Figure 102 Objective lenses a) common achromat b) two lens objective with small air space (" Fraunhofer-Objective ") c) heavy flint achromats (Heavy flint glass = glass with high refractivity); nearly complete correction of the secular spectrum Figure 103 Mirror lens telescopes a) according to Köhler (Theo 010 by Zeiss Jena; I = 135 mm) The larger the relative opening, the higher the light strength.
For a telescope the location of the diaphragm is important. If there are several diaphragms, the diaphragm or its image who appears under the smallest angle from 0 forms the entrance pupil. The exit pupil is the diaphragm (or its image) appearing from 0' under the smallest angle. Even lens casings can serve as aperture stops and represent then the entrance- and exit pupils. While the aperture stop determines the illumination of the image, a diaphragm in the image plane of an optical system limits the field of view in object and image space.
With a rhomb prism the light ray can be shifted by the length of its side without directional change (figure 66). It is used for graduated circle readings and others. The pentagon prism (figure 67) has a quadrilateral cross-section symmetrical to one of its diagonals. It acts like an angle mirror whose mirror surfaces enclose an angle of 50 gon. It thus deflects the ray by 100 gon from its original direction, independent from the incident angle on the prism surface. The pointed prism edge is cut off, which results in its handy form as pentagon prism.